Belgian income tax: A guide to cross-border taxation
If you live in Belgium and you have income from another country, both countries will want to tax the entire income and that may result in double tax.
To prevent double taxation, governments sign “conventions for the avoidance of double taxation”. In these double tax treaties, the two states agree which of them can tax business income, rental income, dividends, interest, royalties, salaries, pensions, etc. More importantly, the treaty also says what they must do to prevent double taxation (that is called “treaty relief”).
It isn’t as simple as “I live and work in Belgium, but I work for a US company and I am paid on my US account, so I don’t have to declare my salary in Belgium”. You really need to read the text of the actual treaty (see the list); double tax treaties have a similar structure, but no two treaties are the same.
For rental income, all treaties say that the income is taxable in the country where the property is located and that Belgium has to give treaty relief, i.e. exempt it from tax
for remuneration, you only pay tax in the other country for the days* you actually work there and
if you worked there 183 days or more in a year, or
if you were paid by a local company, or
if you were paid by the local branch of a company.
* Note that if you live in Belgium and work in the week in Switzerland for a Swiss company, you pay tax in Switzerland but only for the days you actually work in Switzerland. If you work from home on Fridays, or if you have to take a business trip to the US, your income for those days isn't taxable in Switzerland but in Belgium.
Government remuneration and pensions are usually taxable only by that government;
State pensions are mostly - but not always - taxable in the country that pays the pension;
Private pensions are usually - but not always - taxable in Belgium if you live here.
If the income is taxable in the other country, you still have to declare it in Belgium. Belgium gives treaty relief by way of “exemption with progression”. This means that Belgium looks at all your income to determine the average tax rate but exempts the income that is taxable abroad. This means that the income is exempt, but it pushes your other income (the income that is liable to tax in Belgium) higher up in the progressive tax rates.
For remuneration you have to complete box IV.O. For pensions, that is box V.C.
Dividends, interest and royalties are taxable in both countries, and usually the tax withheld in the country of source is limited to 10 or 15% when you present a certificate of residence.
In Belgium you declare the net income after the foreign tax, and you pay 30% tax on that net income..
More from our 2023 income tax guide
- When do I need to file my Belgian income tax return?
- Online or on paper?
- Filing online
- Understanding the paper tax return
- Checklist: What documents do you need?
- The return in detail
- Belgian income tax: There's nowhere to hide
- A guide to cross-border taxation
- Belgian income tax returns for families
- Help! Where to get assistance with your tax return
- Understanding your Belgian income tax bill
- How do I appeal?
- This guide was written by Marc Quaghebeur, an international tax lawyer at Cabinet DAVID. It is a general introduction based on current understanding of the law. It is not to be taken as a suitable alternative for individual advice. If you have a question, you can contact him by clicking on his name.
Hi, in which currency should I report my foreign income? I can't find any information if I should input it in original currency or somehow convert to EUR
QUESTION: I moved to Belgium in October 2019. Do I need to declare my foreign-earned income Jan-Sept 2019 on my Belgian tax return? Or only that which applies to the time I was living in Belgium? Thanks for your help!
Your liability to Belgian income tax starts when you arrive in Belgium. Your income from January to September 2019 is not liable to tax in Belgium.
It is only the income you received between October and December 2019 that you have to declare.
Please note that you may also have to declare income from outside Belgium, between October and December 2019, subject to the terms of the double tax treaty between Belgium and that country.
As for the currency, the only valid currency in Belgium is the euro.
You have to convert all foreign currency into euro at the average exchange rate for the euro (you can find these at the ECB :
for the GBP : http://sdw.ecb.europa.eu/quickview.do?SERIES_KEY=120.EXR.A.GBP.EUR.SP00....
for the USD : http://sdw.ecb.europa.eu/quickview.do?SERIES_KEY=120.EXR.A.USD.EUR.SP00....
For one-off payments, you can use the exchange rate of the day you receive the payment.
I moved to Belgium in March 2020. Do I need to declare my foreign-earned income Jan-Feb 2020 on my Belgian tax return? Or only that which applies to the time I was living in Belgium? (Given that I lived in Belgium for over 6 months during 2020). Thank you in advance.
You became a resident in March 2020.
The income before you came, Jan-Feb 2020 and that was earned overseas is not liable to tax in Belgium.
You only need to declare the income that you received while you were living in Belgium, both Belgian and overseas income, but the latter may be exempt (see above).
I am a Belgian resident and I work full-time in Belgium but I am paid by a company in another country in bank account in the other county.
Shall I record my income under code 250?
Thank you in advance